Think about the last time you’ve witnessed hate, be it from the news or in person. Actually, think of a few instances, not just one. From everyday aversions to controversial societal conflicts, the word “hate” can initiate a plethora of scenarios. To give a broad overview of this complex concept, below is an introduction of eight types of hate that are prevalent throughout the world. Along with these explanations, there will be resources that provide additional information about how to get involved with movements related to the particular types of hate. Please be aware that this article does not cover all types of hate that heavily impact people today.
Racism is defined as prejudice, discrimination or antagonism against a person on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
Racism takes numerous forms and affects millions of people all around the world. Most recently, the Black Lives Matter movement has gained momentum throughout the world following the killing of George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, Breonna Taylor and countless others. Muslims, Hindus, Hispanics, and numerous other ethnic groups suffer from racial discrimination in the form of micro-aggressions everyday in the United States.
Sexism is defined as prejudice, stereotyping or discrimination on the basis of sex/gender (typically against women).
Sexism, also referred to as misogyny, exists in a variety of forms today such as the gender wage gap, discrimination in the workplace and schools, modern day witch-hunting, gendercide, domestic violence, objectification, sexual abuse and casual sexism.
Manifestations of casual sexism in the workplace are abundant in society, where women’s opinions and efforts are often devalued and where they have to face insensitive remarks masked as jokes. In an astonishing study made in 2019, only 6 countries give men and women equal legal work rights (We Forum).
In a myriad of landmark court cases since 1965 such as Roe V. Wade and Reed V. Reed, the United States has adopted many new practices and laws that fight sexism. Combatting sexism today would start with tearing down age-old stereotypes, identifying and fighting bias and criminalizing sexist hate speech.
Homophobia includes a range of prejudices and negative attitudes towards people who identify as or are perceived as a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender.
Lesbophobia, biphobia, transphobia, acephobia (discrimination against asexual people), and a general sexual orientation bias all motivate hate crimes across the world.
The Orlando nightclub shooting in 2016 is one such example where Omar Mateen killed 49 and wounded 53 people inside a gay nightclub. Many cases of violence against the LGBTQ+ community never see the light of day due to lack of reporting and negligence.
Every year, the world celebrates Pride Month in June in order to appreciate and direct the attention toward the LGBTQIA+ community and to highlight the many socio-economic challenges they unjustly face.
In a landmark decision in India, Section 377 of the Constitution, which made sexual activities “against the law of nature” illegal, was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 2018.
Islamophobia is defined as the fear of or prejudice against the Islamic region or Muslims, especially when seen as a source of terrorism.
The 9/11 attacks increased the frequency of this phobia drastically as reports show that almost 52% of Americans say that the West do not respect Muslim societies (Gallup News). This can be proven since attacks on mosques and on people presumed to be Muslim can be seen as recent as 2019 in California.
Islamophobia is also on the rise in India, where Muslim minorities are being negatively profiled and discriminated against. This is exaggerated due to the growing border tensions between India and Pakistan.
Recently, the “re-education camps” by the Government of China for Uyghurs, an ethnic Muslim group in Xinjiang, have come to light. Investigations have revealed that these people are being subjected to exploitation and women are facing mass sterilization.
Xenophobia is defined as the dislike for or prejudice against people from other countries.
Recently, COVID-19 has been fueling Anti-Asian (or Anti-China) sentiments in the world in the form of hate speech and derogatory language, as well as physical attacks in some places. Many politicians have been latching onto this to further push their anti-immigration or ultra-nationalist causes.
In 2008, there were multiple xenophobia attacks against migrants which were provoked by competition of the limited resources. These resulted in 62 deaths (Human Rights Watch). There have been numerous cases of xenophobia attacks in South Africa where immigrants face discrimination and even violence due to the intolerance of some locals all round the country.
Anti-Semitism is defined as hostility towards, prejudice against, or discrimination against Jews.
The death of around 6 million Jews in the World War II genocide (also known as the Holocaust) is one of the most horrific incidents in history. However, 75 years later Anti-semitism is still very much alive due to Holocaust denial and white washing in the United States as well as in Europe.
Historical tensions between Muslims and Jews worsen this situation in the Middle East.
Ableism is defined as discrimination and social prejudice against people with disabilities.
Ableism is alive in today’s society in various forms such as segregation, seclusion and failure to incorporate systems that are accessible for all. Disabilities are widely misrepresented and under-represented in all forms of media.
More recently, we have seen a rise in the Disability Rights Movement, which fights for equal opportunities in independent living, employment, education and housing. In 1973, the Rehabilitation Act was signed into law making it one of the first U.S federal civil rights laws shielding people with disabilities.
Body shaming, also known as sizeism or size discrimination, is the idea that people are prejudged by their size.
Being overweight often carries a stigma and results in a feeling of shame due to societal pressure. Some people believe that fat-shaming motivates overweight people to be healthier but research shows that this is far from the truth. Fat-shaming engenders embarrassment and shame, causing detrimental impacts on mental and physical well-being of victims. Body Shaming of any kind can result in serious emotional trauma, especially at a young age.
Body-shaming and weight discrimination is still alive and legal in the (majority of) the United States under the Constitution and federal law. Most countries do not have any national laws that legally prohibit sizeism.
Feature Image: Rickr